Git常用操作命令收集

前段时间把博客转到Github上面去了,但是Source一直没有备份上去(技术问题),只能手动备份.这么久时不时的要找在Ubuntu的虚拟机上面去玩玩git,写写blog.无奈对那些命令还是不太熟悉,于是发扬好记性不如烂笔头的优良传统,把这些命令记下来.

CONFIGURE


  • 标识你自己:电子邮件和名字:



git config –global user.name “David Beckwith”

git config –global user.email “dbitsolutions@gmail.com


  • 看所有用户:



git config –list

或者



cat .gitconfig


  • 设置别名



git config –global alias.co checkout


  • 查看你的配置



cat .gitconfig


  • 去忽略空白 (Ruby is whitespace insensitive)



git config –global apply.whitespace nowarn


  • Some nice aliases:



gb = git branch
gba = git branch -a
gc = git commit -v
gd = git diff | mate
gl = git pull
gp = git push
gst = git status


  • START USING GIT



git init


  • TO IGNORE SOME FILES

在根目录下增加一个叫 .gitignore 的文件,并且增加你想ignore的文件:

*.log
db/schema.rb
db/schema.sql

Git自动ignore空目录。如果你想包含log目录,但是想ignore里面的所有文件,首先在.gitignore文件里加log/* , 然后在这个空目录下再添加一个空的 .gitignore 文件。

touch log/.gitignore
  • add新文件以及所有change到git index *
git add .
  • 看状态 *
git status
  • 提交 *
git commit -m "First import"
  • 看已经被提交的 *
git ls-files
  • 删除一个文件 *
git rm [file name]
  • 提交当前repos的所有的改变 *
git commit -a
  • 添加一个文件到git index *
git add [file name]
  • 当你用-v参数的时候可以看commit的差异 *
git commit -v
  • 添加commit信息 *
git commit -m "This is the message describing the commit"
  • -a是代表add,把所有的change加到git index里然后再commit *
git commit -a
  • 一般提交命令: *
git commit -a -v
  • 看你commit的日志 *
git log
  • TO VIEW A LOG OF YOUR COMMITS WITH A GRAPH TO SHOW THE EXTENT OF THE CHANGES *
git log --stat
  • TO HAVE PAGINATION WHEN VIEWING THE LOG FILE USE THE -v OPTION *
git log -v
  • TO VISUALIZE YOUR CHANGES *
gitk --all
  • TO CREATE A NEW BRANCH *
git branch [name of your new branch]
  • TO VIEW ALL OF THE EXISTING BRANCHES *
git branch
  • TO VIEW A LIST OF ALL BRANCHES *
git branch -a
  • TO SWITCH TO ANOTHER BRANCH *

The state of your file system will change after executing this command.

git checkout [name of the branch you want to switch to]

OR

git co [name of the branch you want to switch to]
  • TO MAKE SURE THAT YOUR NEW BRANCH GETS CHANGES FROM THE MASTER BRANCH (WHERE EVERYBODY ELSE IS WORKING) USE THE REBASE COMMAND *
git rebase master
  • TO MERGE YOUR NEW BRANCH INTO THE MASTER BRANCH *

First, switch back to the master branch:

git co master

Check to see what changes you’re about to merge together, compare the two branches:

git diff master xyz

If you’re in a branch that’s not the xyz branch and want to merge the xyz branch into it:

git merge xyz
  • TO REVERT YOUR CHANGES to before the merge. *
git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD
  • TO RESOLVE CONFLICTS just edit your file. *

Remove the markings, add the file, then commit.

  • TO CREATE A BRANCH AND SWITCH TO THE BRANCH IN ONE MOVE: *
git checkout -b [name of new branch]
  • TO CREATE A “CLIPBOARD” or “STASH” OF CHANGES THAT ARE NOT YET COMMITED (SO THAT YOU CAN SWITCH TO ANOTHER BRANCH IN THE MIDDLE OF YOUR CHANGES.), CREATE A STASH.*
git stash "Put a message here to remind you of what you're saving to the clipboard"
  • TO SWITCH AWAY FROM THE CURRENT BRANCH *
git co [branch you want to switch to]
  • Do whatever Then switch back to the stashed branch *
git co [the stashed branch]
  • TO VIEW THE LIST OF STASHES *
git stash list
  • TO LOAD BACK THE “CLIPBOARD” OR “STASH” *
git stash apply

Now you can continue to work where you were previously.

  • TO DELETE A BRANCH THAT IS NOT USED ANYMORE, but already merged into the current branch. (TO CLEAN UP)*
git branch -d [name of branch you want to delete]
  • TO DELETE AN UNMERGED BRANCH *
git branch -D [name of branch you want to delete]
  • TO DELETE THE STASH. (ERASE THE “CLIPBOARD” FROM MEMORY)*
git stash clear
  • TO SET UP YOUR REPOSITORY FOR SHARING ON A CENTRAL SERVER *

Copy up your repository. e.g.:

scp -r my_project deploy@yourbox.com:my_project

Move your files on the remote server to /var/git/my_project For security make the owner of this project git On the repository server:

sudo chown -R git:git my_project

Then (for security) restrict the “deploy” user to doing git-related things in /etc/passwd with a git-shell.

  • TO CHECK OUT THE GIT REPOSITORY TO YOUR LOCALHOST. ON YOUR LOCAL HOST DO THIS:*
git clone git@yourbox.com:/var/git/my_project
  • TO SEE SOME INFO ABOUT THE REPOSITORY THAT WILL TELL YOU WHICH REPOSITORY IS THE MASTER AND WHICH IS THE SLAVE:*
cat .git/config

By virtue of having cloned the remote repository, your local repository becomes the slave and will track and synchronize with the remote master branch.

  • TO UPDATE YOUR LOCAL BRANCH FROM THE REMOTE SERVER: *
git pull
  • TO GET A COPY OF THE ENTIRE REMOTE REPOSITORY (e.g. a repository named “laptop”) WITHOUT MERGING THEM INTO YOUR LOCAL BRANCHES USE FETCH*
git fetch laptop
  • TO MERGE TWO LOCAL BRANCHES (ie. your local xyz branch with your local master branch) USE MERGE *
git merge laptop/xyz

This merged the (already copied laptop repository’s xyz branch) with the current branch you’re sitting in.

  • TO MERGE THE REMOTE BRANCH WITH YOUR LOCAL BRANCH THAT YOU ARE SITTING IN USE PULL
    TO ADD LOCAL KNOWLEDGE (TO YOUR LOCAL REPOSITORY) OF A 2ND REMOTE REPOSITORY, LIKE YOUR LAPTOP*
git remote add laptop duo2book.local:repos/m_project

where ’’‘laptop’’” is the name of the remote repository and ”’‘duo2book.local’’” is the name of the remote machine.

  • TO VIEW META INFORMATION ABOUT THAT REMOTE REPOSITORY *
git remote show laptop
  • TO PUSH A COMMITTED LOCAL CHANGE OF THE xyz BRANCH TO THE REMOTE laptop BRANCH *
git push laptop xyz

*TO CREATE A TRACKING BRANCH (A SLAVE BRANCH). * Ie. to link a local branch to a remote branch:

git branch --track local_branch remote_branch
  • NOW IF YOU’RE SITTING IN THE LOCAL TRACKING BRANCH, TO PULL YOU DON’T NEED TO SPECIFY THE REMOTE TRACKING BRANCH:*
git  pull

Note: You can track(link) different local branches to different remote machines. For example, you can track your friend’s “upgrade” branch with your “bobs_upgrade” branch, and simultaneously you can track the origin’s “master” branch (of your main webserver) with your local “master” branch.

By convention, ‘origin’ is the local name given to the remote centralized server which is the way SVN is usually set up on a remote server.

  • TO SEE WHICH LOCAL BRANCHES ARE TRACKING A REMOTE BRANCH:*
git remote show origin

TO WORK WITH AN SVN REPOSITORY BUT WORK WITH GIT LOCALLY:

git-svn clone [http location of an svn repository]

Now you can work with the checked out directory as though it was a git repository. (cuz it is)
TO PUSH (COMMIT) CHANGES TO THE REMOTE SERVER

git-svn dcommit
  • TO UPDATE YOUR LOCAL REPOSITORY FROM THE SVN REPOSITORY*
git-svn rebase

NOTE: make sure you have your perl bindings to your local svn installation.
I screwed up, how do I reset my checkout?

git checkout -f